In
November of 1897 a Monsieur Roux made a remarkable archaeological discovery in
a field north of Coligny, Ain, France. He came across a buried statue of the Roman
deity, Mars and with it the badly broken up remains of what had once been a large
bronze plaque. There were in the vicinity of 153 individual fragments associated
with the plaque, most of which bore some form of writing, accompanied by calibration
marks and numerical values.

The writing itself, although inscribed by use
of Roman letters and numbers, was in an early language of the Gaul's and vaguely
recognizable as terminology used by the Druids to indicate moon phases or fests.

The Coligny Calendar is thought to have first been fabricated in about 50
A.D. or about 100-years after the Romans made their unwelcome incursion into the
affairs of Gaul under Julius Caesar.

The utter fragmentation of, what should have been a timeless, durable plaque of bronze, suggests that it suffered intense violence at the hands of individuals who held it in tremendous contempt…possibly Romans wishing to enforce the Julian Calendar system…or more likely latter Roman Christians, wishing to enforce the edicts of the Church to obliterate all things pagan…including images of non Christian deities.

That
any of these precious metal parts survived at all is a miracle and one is given
to speculate whether or not some old Druidic priest gathered up the smashed remains
of a cherished scientific calculator then deposited them for safe keeping in the
forest.

An age marked by scientific accomplishment was being eclipsed by
a long, dangerous age, where ignorance and brutality would muffle the wisdom of
the old sages and extinguish the accrued scientific knowledge of millenniums.
The fragmented Calendar of Coligny was destined to sleep undisturbed in its hiding
place for many centuries until a time when it could emerge into world that would
wish to preserve it.

So, what can the Coligny Calendar tell us about the pre-Christian astronomical/ mathematical endeavours of ancient, Druidic France?

**Figure 1: There remains
only 45% of the original bronze plaque, which makes it difficult to decipher.
The official measurements of the plaque are 1.48 metres
long X .90 metres high (see: Astronomische Gesellschaft Meeting Abstracts,
Abstracts of Contributed Talks and Posters presented at the Annual Scientific
Meeting of the Astronomische Gesellschaft at Heidelberg, September 14--19,
1998, talk #J12 by Harald Gropp). **

**A
bronze frame surrounds the more centrally inscribed region, creating both outer
and inner rectangles. The inscribed region of the plaque was divided up into 16
equidistant vertical columns and 8 box segments within each of those columns.
This provided a total of 128 boxes in which writing, numbers, day-marks or symbols
of notation occurred. A space beneath the top perimeter frame contained no inscribing
throughout the top horizontal length of the plaque to a depth of almost 6 cm.
**

**Figure
2: It's quite obvious that the Coligny Calendar was set out as an accurate grid
before any inscribing occurred. In theory there should have been 1830 of these
small peg holes across the calendar. A total of 1770 holes would have indicated
phases of the moon through 60 lunar months (1770-days = 354 X 5...the lunar year
is 354.375-days). **

**There
were also two special "CIALLOS" regions, used for inserting intercalary
days as needed. Although little is left of one CIALLOS region, we are still able
to see that each represented 30-days (MAT). The fully titled months of the calendar
plaque were, split into biweekly sections. Six of the months were composed of
a total of 30-days. The other six months were composed of 15-days in the first
biweekly section and 14-days in their second biweekly section. The double spaced
CIALLOS regions (occupying space generally allotted to four months) number up
to XV or 15-days, with another 15-days allotted to
their ATENOVX appendages. This researcher considers that the CIALLOS regions were
used in a wide variety of ways. This included one function designed to indicate
1/8th of a year (45.75-days) in a circular count within a CIALLOS that ended on
the first day of MID SAM (46th day). **

**When
the bronze alloy plaque was subjected to brutal forces of destruction, it had
a natural tendency to fracture on the closely spaced holes (like a postage stamp).
The following was the generalized, overall result. **

**Figure
3: Fragmentation of the ancient Druidic calendar occurred primarily on the holes
within the column lines. The intended dimensions of each column, between monthly
and bimonthly headings, can be accurately assessed to find the measurement increment
of the designers and, thereby, the overall measurement standard that they used
in their ancient society. It appears obvious that the holes were used for inserting
pegs, which indicated the daily phase of the moon and position arrived at within
the Sabbatical cycle. By this method, the positions of upcoming events or fests
could be marked out well ahead of time.**

**THE
MEASUREMENT STANDARD.**

European/
Mediterranean people have maintained a tradition of using the Sumerian/ Babylonian
sexagesimal system of** time keeping,** with 24 hours in a day, breaking down
into hours of 60-minutes, with minutes of 60 seconds duration. The system is made
up of periods of 7-days for a week and an intermix of sexagesimal and septimal
values.

The **degree
angle system** that European/ Mediterranean people have traditionally used is,
again, taken from the Sumerians and Babylonians. The value of 360-degrees in a
circle, broken down into 60 minutes of arc, which are further broken into 60-seconds
of arc has long been used…which raises an awkward question…** whatever
happened to the Sumerian/ Babylonian measurement standard and why was that not
adopted by European/ Mediterranean peoples…?**

A linear measurement standard must precede either time or degree-angle systems, as it's the most basic or rudimentary stage of any such 3-4 part package, which also includes weights and volume measures.

**The
fact is that the "so-called" British standard
of measurement is also the Sumerian/ Babylonian standard and it was this
same standard that built the Pyramids of the Giza Plateau, the Octagon of Newark
Ohio, Stonehenge, as well as the geometric layout of Rennes Le Chateau in Southern
France.**

For European peoples, the measurement standard seems to have
originated in Egypt and to have spread from that cultural centre world-wide in
antiquity…as far afield as New Zealand at the base of the South Pacific.
The Calendar of Coligny was built to that Egyptian/ Sumerian/ Babylonian/ British
standard and contains coded values, which cannot be extracted or identified by
any other system of measurement.

The
pre-dynastic mummies of Egypt show us that the people occupying the region at
that early epoch were of European physiology, with brown, blond or red hair. The
busts of the early Pharaohs of Egypt are, again, European in physical makeup or
appearance and wall art of the tombs often depicts the people as blue or green
eyed, of light reddish complexion, with red, blond or other European hair hues.
Pharaoh Ramassees II, whose mummy is on display in the Egyptian Museum at Cairo,
has reddish blond hair, as do many other Pharaonic Dynasty mummies from about
1500 to 3000 B.C. or earlier. The Nubians finally overwhelmed Egypt in the millennium
before the Christian era. Many former residents of Egypt, as well as their cousin
peoples occupying satellite nations like Israel, had migrated to Europe as early
as 5000 B.C., taking all of their sciences or weights, measures and volumes standards
with them. Harps, bagpipes, plinn rhythm's, cultural symbolism, language, gods
and many other expressions of their early society were carried with them along
the waymark trails of North Africa to the Pillars of Hercules. The migrants crossed
the Mediterranean at Gibraltar, then became the people of Europe. The oldest books
and legends of counties like Ireland speak of their Mediterranean origins. The
lengths and angles built into the Pyramids of the Giza Plateau, which edifices
had formerly acted in the capacity of a **Bureau of Standards,**
were immediately encoded into the landscapes of Europe. Hence, the 3300 stone
markers of Carnac in Brittany, acting as a giant library of scientific codes,
formerly used in Egypt, or the landscape marking in and around Avebury Henge,
an appendage or related structure of which is Stonehenge

Let's look at the inbuilt coded values in the official dimensions of the Coligny Calendar:

**Figure
4: The importance of these measurements on the outer or inner perimeters of the
frame cannot be overstated.**

- The
outer length of the Calendar of Coligny is
**4.86**feet. The Roman foot was read variously as 11.664 inches or 11.66666 inches (depending on the type of calculation being undertaken). Under the first system, 5000 Roman feet represented a Roman mile of**4860**feet. The length of the Calendar of Coligny is, therefore, 1/1000th of a Roman mile or**5 Roman feet in length, also known as a Roman "Pace".**This length is also 2 X 2.43 feet and is a strong lunar code within the 18.613-year (calibrated to 6804-days) lunar nutation cycle. There would be a total of 28 X 243 days in that particular cycle from lunar major standstill to lunar major standstill. Under the Sabbatical Calendar system, each 28 day count represented one calendar month. Concurrent to calculating the lunar nutation cycle, it was also important for the Druidic priests to have a lunisolar calendar system that ran within the Sabbatical calendar. This worked to a 7- solar day, 7- solar year and 7 X 7 solar- year count. The 243-day lunar increment was integral to that system for regulating the lunar aspect of the count, such that it melded perfectly with the solar count at the termination of the sabbatical year. This aspect will be explained in detail as we proceed.

- The
outer height of the plaque is officially .9 of a metre and this value translates
easily to
**2.953125**feet or 35.4375 inches. Under the ancient system of calibration**the lunar month was 29.53125-days and there were 354.375 solar days in a lunar year.**These values are encrypted into the base length of the Khafre Pyramid, which is 15/16ths of the length of the Great Pyramid (756 feet) and Khafre, thereby, runs to**708.75 feet. This figure is 354.375 X 2 or 29.53125 X 24.**The ancient lunar month calibration was correct to 57 seconds per month alongside the figure we use today. The 29.53125- solar day increment is the period from full moon to full moon (synodic month). This lunar month value was pressed into service because it formed a mathematical progression, which worked with amazing accuracy throughout the nutation (18.613-solar year) and metonic (19- solar year) cycles of the moon.

- The
inner rectangle of the Coligny calendar was intended to be 4.536 feet in length.
This value is in homage to the Great Pyramid and its vertical height from the
base to the surface of the flat top floor (453.6 feet under the sexagesimal reading).
Half the base length of the Great Pyramid is 378 feet, which equates to 4536-inches.
The 453.6 value must be known and remembered, as it forms the central ingredient
of a formula that divulges the circumference of the Earth. There could be no safe
world navigation or grid referencing of the globe without knowledge of this and
two other very similar numbers. This length on the Coligny Calendar is exactly
**2.64**Egyptian Royal Cubits of 20.61818182 inches (note: one of the Egyptian Royal Cubits in the Turin Museum has an official length of 20.618 inches). The Egyptian Royal Cubits were once fully-fledged incremental values within the British measurement system, but their usage was lost at some point after the Roman invasion. How the (4) marginally different, Egyptian Royal Cubits (fashioned to work in differing number families) worked specifically as memory devices for remembering the size of the Earth is explained within this website.

- As
if to emphasize the number
**2.64**, it is also present in the height value of the inner frame of the Coligny Calendar (2.64 feet). It was an ancient preoccupation to encode this number strongly from Egypt to Britain to New Zealand…half a world away. The number was used in standing stone circle site layouts or within coded structures, as it relates to the mile measurement (2640 X 2 = 5280…the number of feet in a mile). The station stones rectangle at Stonehenge was set out to be**264**feet X 113.4 feet (lunar code). The Crosshouse at Miringa Te Kakara in New Zealand carried codes of 52.8 feet and**26.4**Egyptian Royal Cubits. Let's consider those two other sites:

**Figure 5: The Station
Stones rectangle at Stonehenge was 264 feet long and 113.4 feet wide. It perfectly
enclosed the Sarsen Circle in its width from 45-degrees azimuth to 225-degrees
azimuth (the Sarsen Circle was made slightly elliptical to accentuate the 113.4-day
lunar code…6804-days =113.4 X 60). Ninety degrees opposed to the 264 feet
long eastern side of the Station Stones rectangle the sun rose on the day of the
summer solstice…with "first glint" to the north of the Heel Stone
at 48.6- degrees. Remember, the Coligny Calendar plaque is 4.86-feet in its outer
edge lengths.**

**Figure
6: A strange former Maori meeting house, which had a pedigree back to the mysterious
Patu-paiarehe people … a civilization vanquished by the Polynesian Maori.
Many pre-Maori people of New Zealand fitted the description of Europeans and the
ancient mathematics found within the coded structures of New Zealand attest to
a strong cultural link to Europe and the Mediterranean. The Crosshouse of Miringa
Te Kakara seems to follow the identical surveying methodology of Stonehenge in
its astronomical coding. The red rectangle, which runs to the outside of
two wings, is 52.8 feet long (26.4 feet X 2). The width of the wings (17.01 feet)
is a strong lunar code that helps identify the duration of the lunar nutation
cycle (6804-days = 1701-days X 4). **

- The distance from door threshold to door threshold at the Crosshouse was coded to be 45.36 feet (26.4 Egyptian Royal Cubits) or exactly 10 times the inner frame length of the Calendar of Coligny. It is very evident that a shared astronomical/ mathematical method, encrypted under the same measurement standard, spanned oceans and continents. The French call New Zealand, "l'autre bout du monde"… "the very ends of the Earth"…as it is the most extremely remote country from the geographical position of France.

**THE
AGE-OLD METHOD BY WHICH THE CALENDAR OF COLIGNY WORKED.**

The Calendar of Coligny was lunisolar, which meant that it took into account the cycles of the sun and moon simultaneously. It was designed to have these two utterly different duration cycles meld together at specific windows of time and stay abreast of both on a daily basis. The only way that the two cycles could be combined within a calendar system was to incorporate them both into a calendar spanning seven years.

Various theories and speculations have been raised about the need for adding intercalary months or making other complex adjustments in order for the Coligny Calendar to have some semblance of function. As it turns out there was nothing complex about the system and it could run indefinitely without any need for serious adjustment or intercalation. All that was required to keep the system accurate was the return of the full Moon every 29.53125-days (29 & 17/32nds), as well as seasonal observances of the solar equinoxes or solstices.

The
system used by the Druids when the Calendar of Coligny was fabricated had been
handed down to them for several thousand years and was based upon the age-old
**Sabbatical Calendar.** This accurate, tried and true calendar system had
been used in former homelands beyond the Eastern Mediterranean and had been carried
from Egypt in about 5000-4000 BC when that land had been abandoned due to creeping
aridity.

**MEASURING
THE MOON WITH A REED.**

The
oldest books or records contain clues about measurement standards in use during
remote epochs. One such standard,** the reed,**
was based, equally, upon the numbers six and seven used together. This means that
any values derived could be divided equally by the numbers six or seven. The ancient
measurement referred to was six **Royal **cubits
(**a cubit and a handbreadth**) in length. We
know from comparative analysis that the Hebrew (Royal) cubit referred to was **21-inches**
in length and that six such cubits formed a **reed **measurement
of **10.5 feet or 126-inches.** Mention to this
very important, ancient reed measurement, semi-hidden within religious symbolism,
is found in both the old and new testaments of the Bible. Here are some references
to the reed measurement, which was still in use or known amongst the few remnant
survivor Hebrews, following Israel's conquest by the Babylonians.

**'and
in the man's hand a measuring reed of six cubits long by
the cubit and an hand breadth (see Ezekial 40:5).**

**1
And there was given me a reed like unto a rod: and the angel stood, saying, Rise,
and measure the temple of God, and the altar, and them that worship therein.
2 But the court which is without the temple leave out, and measure it not; for
it is given unto the Gentiles: and the holy city shall they tread under foot forty
and two months. **[The reed measurement was

3 And I will give power unto my two witnesses, and they shall prophesy a thousand two hundred and threescore days,

The
Great Pyramid, which was built to be 756 feet in length, is 72 reeds long per
side or 288 for a full perimeter circuit. The Khafre Pyramid, which was intended
to have a design length 15/16ths the length of of the Great Pyramid, is 67.5 reeds
per side or 270 for a full perimeter circuit. One of the most important functions
of the reed measurement **was to keep track of both the
sun and moon during the Sabbatical Calendar cycle** (**2556.75-days...7
solar years**...working alongside...**2551.5-days...7.2
lunar years**) or the **Lunar Nutation cycle **(**6804-days**).
Before we can understand how the Druids kept track of both the sun and moon within
the Calendar of Coligny counting system, we have to become fully conversant with
the ages-old reed measurement and its attributes. It is the opinion of this researcher
that the rods or staffs carried by the majority of astronomer Druids would have
been **half a reed in length (5.25 feet or 63 inches...one
tenth of a Greek stadia).**

With nothing more than a half reed rod in hand, suitably marked into finite incremental values, accurate calendar calculations could be completed by an adept, isolated Druid, in the same vein as a Druid with direct, daily access to the Calendar of Coligny brass plaque.

Here are some clues related to how the half reed (5.25 feet) can aid in all aspects of Sabbatical Calendar or Lunar Nutation cycle calculations:

- 7 solar years @ 365.25-days
each = 2556.75-days. That's
**5.25**-days X 487. - 7.2
lunar years @ 354.375-days each = 2551.5-days. That's
**5.25**-days X 486. - The Lunar
Nutation cycle was calculated to endure for 6804-days. That's
**5.25**-days X 1296. **5.25**-days = 126 hours. Note: the reed is**126**-inches in length.- 7-days
= 168 hours, which is
**5.25**hours X 32. - A
lunar month is 29.53125-days. That's 708.75-hours or
**5.25**hours X 135. - 135-degrees (22.5-degrees X 6) is half of 270-degrees. The lunar month cycle could, therefore, be accurately tracked on a repetitive circle of 360-degrees.

**SOLAR
YEAR CALCULATION.**

The Earth completes a circuit around the Sun every 365.25-days and this was the solar figure used in calendar calculations, although the ancient astronomers had refined the cycle to 365.2420-days.

It was considered needful that fluid, functioning and regulated society have a simple system of day counting, wherein there were always 7-days between Sabbaths. For this reason a "raw count" system was devised wherein there were 28-days in each month and 13 months in each year, culminating in a year of 364-days.

Rather
than make adjustments on an annual basis, the system was left to run unimpeded
for 7 full years, by which time a known error of 8.75-days had crept into the
equation. This small accumulating error didn't matter, as farmers were aware of
the annual shortfall and could adjust planting accordingly by a day or two if
they so desired. They could also observe the equinoxes, which marked the beginning
of two seasons or the solstices, which marked the centre points of the two additional
seasons.

The main thing was that, under the convenient sabbatical system,
society was regulated on a week-to-week basis and no-one had to do any mental
arithmetic to figure out what day it was…like we in modern society must constantly
do in order to know the calendar date… under the odd, inferior system foisted
upon us by Roman Christianity...**'thirty days hath September, April, June and
November. All the rest have thirty one, except February, which hath twenty eight
days clear and twenty nine each leap year'... Jeez!!!**

**It
is because the Celts/ Britons and earlier groups followed the Sabbatical Calendar
system that there were 13-months in their solar calendars,
each marked by different trees… or, in other cases, animals. **

At the termination of the 7th or Sabbatical Year (2548-days…7 X 364) a festival would begin, which would endure for about 9-days (8.75). During this period the solar count would come back into synchronization and the next sabbatical cycle could begin anew with everything fully corrected (2556.75-days). This same system of counting would be repeated for 7 X 7-years until the end of the 49th year. The synchronization applied equally to the lunar count and, at the end of each Sabbatical year or before the commencement of the 50th (Jubilee) year, the lunisolar calendar was, without any need for radical adjustment, running absolutely precisely.

"Calendar correction" festivals at the 7th year juncture might have been shorter in some regions of Europe or the Mediterranean, with a larger correction just prior to the 50th (Jubilee) year. The late era Hebrews appear to have observed one "double Sabbath" each year, which effectively added one day to the annual count, bringing it to 365-days per agrarian year. This would mean a correction at the termination of the Sabbatical Year (7th year) of only 1.25-days.

**LUNAR
YEAR CYCLE.**

The moon completes a full circuit of the Earth every 354.375-days (to use the exact number of the ancient Druids, Egyptian or others) and the lunar year is, thereby, shorter than the solar year by almost 11-days. This disparity in the two cycles provided a seemingly difficult problem to overcome for anyone wishing to devise a calendar that followed the sun and moon simultaneously.

How this was done is indicated, in part, by the culling of Mistletoe on the sixth day after the full Moon…

**THE
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE MISTLETOE AND GOLDEN SICKLE CEREMONY.**

Pliny
the Elder speaks of a ceremony observed by the Druids, **"which is to them
the beginning of months and years (Sexta luna, quae principia…).** This
was the Mistletoe culling ceremony on the 6th day after the full moon. It's very
significant that the terminology Pliny the Elder used was, **"months
and years". **

Ancient
Druidic Priests of Britain are known to have gone into the forest on the 6th day
after the full moon to seek out an oak tree, which was inflicted by the semi-parasitic
plant, Mistletoe. For this ceremony the priests dressed in white robes and took
with them into the forest, a golden sickle with which they would "cut back"
or "cull" sprigs of Mistletoe from the venerated Oak.

A cloak would
be laid out on the ground at the base of the tree, upon which the cut sprigs of
Mistletoe could fall…for the requirement was that they were never to touch
the ground. As the sprigs fell, other priests would dance around the tree trunk
singing, **'Hey derry down, down, down Derry!' which literally signified, 'In
a circle move we round the oak'.**

Sadly,
some of the most misunderstood, misrepresented individuals in history are these
brilliant astronomer priests, for there was a profound astronomical/ mathematical
reason behind this otherwise "trite" ceremony.

The reason was borne
out of a deep understanding of the solar & lunar cycles throughout a period
of 7 solar years and a need to synchronise the cycles in order to have a functioning
and perfected lunisolar calendar.

All of the symbolism in the ceremony points directly to the Sun & Moon and to a culling or cutting back of one to alleviate the burden of the other. Consider the following:

- The
item used to cut the Mistletoe back was a golden sickle. The golden aspect represented
the Sun and the crescent shape represented the Moon. The two elements were conjoined
within the sickle.

- The
Mistletoe plant itself had physical attributes of both Sun and Moon, with yellowish
tinges to its stem. The fruit springs forth from a yellow calyx and is a globular,
smooth white berry (like the Moon orb at the full Moon). One of the names for
Mistletoe was the "golden bough".

- For
this ceremony the priests wore white robes and sacrificed two white cattle.

- The count
of days in 7 solar years (365.25-days per year) is 2556.75. The count of days
in 7.2 lunar years (354.375 days per year) is 2551.5, which is a shortfall of
5.25-days against the solar count.

- If,
therefore, one wished to run a Sabbatical Calendar system through a period of
7 solar years concurrent with a lunar period of 7.2 lunar years, then all one
would have to do is offset the solar count from the lunar count by 5.25-days (sixth
day after the solstice).

- One
of the traditions that the Roman Christian overseers were unsuccessful in eradicating
was a "12-day" celebration during one of the fests, which eventually
became the 12-days of Christmas. This shows that brutality doesn't always win
out when people are obstinate about the preservation of particular rituals. The
Roman Christians also tried to ban the display of Mistletoe at the festivals,
by saying that the "cross" upon which Christ was crucified had been
made from Mistletoe. According to them, Mistletoe had once been a tree, but having
availed itself for this terrible purpose, it was forever accursed and reduced
by divine anger to a parasitic plant without roots.

- From
an astronomical point of view, the best time to commence a calendar count is at
the time of the Solstice, when there is a full Moon in the period closest to lunar
major standstill. Technically, this manifold event, preceding the Mistletoe culling
event by 5.25-days, was the "fixing" or benchmark point for calendar
commencement. The Mistletoe event was purely for synchronising the solar and lunar
cycles with an offset of 5.25-days, such that both would terminate on the same
day 7 solar years or 7.2 lunar years later.

- One
could view the process as either the 2551.5 lunar days moved beyond the solstice
5.25-days (to become 2556.75-days) or the 2556.75 solar days moved 5.25-days backwards
from the solstice (to become 2551.5-days). It seems very logical to conclude that
the "12-days" of Christmas tradition developed from a ritual of marking
the period from 5.25-days prior to the Solstice (6th day before) till 5.25-days
after the Solstice (6th-day after). Such a ritual would make it very clear to
all concerned how the calendar count was going to run for the next 7 solar years
and how both Sun & Moon periods were to sit in relation to each other. The
ritual would also set a time fix or day-count back to the "beginning of the
calendar year".

- The Solstice had to be observed before the Mistletoe ceremony was possible to make sure that nothing was off by a day, so the only opportunity for a 5.25-day offset ceremony was after the solstice.

**THE
DAY FOLLOWS THE NIGHT & THE WARM SEASONS FOLLOW THE COLD. **

Julius
Caesar observed that under the Celtic system of time keeping:

**"All
the Gauls assert that they are descended from the god Dis, and say that this tradition
has been handed down by the Druids. For that reason they compute the divisions
of every season, not by the number of days, but of nights; they keep birthdays
and the beginnings of months and years in such an order that the day follows the
night."**

Most writers versed in Celtic lore tend to accept that the Celtic new-year began in the colder months or on the first day of winter. Certainly this date was marked by significant celebration and became "All Souls Day" or Halloween. It does, however, seem impractical to do the mistletoe culling ceremony in the middle of a howling gale six days after the coldest day of the year. The only plausible time for clambering up oak trees, golden sickle in hand, or dancing around the oak's trunk singing as the mistletoe sprigs fell, would be at the height of summer. In consideration of what practical people are more likely to do, we can assume that the 12-day celebration was six days each side of the midsummer Solstice and not the midwinter Solstice.

The
Calendar of Coligny bronze plaque commences its monthly titles with **MID SAM**...rendered
elsewhere on the plaque as **SAMON.** This section is preceded by one of the
two **CIALLOS** sections, which were separate, set aside, calculation boxes,
not directly associated with the sequence of unravelling months. Although the
very ancient forms of writing on the Coligny plaque are little understood and
still the subject of much speculation, the term **MID SAM, **nonetheless, is
identifiable as **Mid Summer.** Our linguistics scholars seem to be in very
general agreement on that point:

**'Samon
- Ce mot est certainment en rapport avec le nom de l'été...Au sens
large du terme, on peut interpréter samon par "estival", quoique,
plus précisément, il désigne le "résumé",
la recapitulation "de l'été.'**

**'Samon
- This word is certainly in connection with the name of summer...In the broad
sense of the term, one can interpret samon by "estival" **[estival
= summer *[adjective-adverb]]**,
it designates the "resumption", the "recapitulation" of summer'
(see: Les Druides du Québec © 2003 courriel : adboutios@hotmail.com
). **

From
an astronomical point of view it is essential that a (major, infrequent) calendar
"fix" be an 8th of a year after the beginning point of a season, such
that one can get an exact solar position time fix (Solstice). For further refining
the precision of that fix, it should be made at the time when the moon (at rise
and set) reaches its most extreme northerly or southerly positions on the horizon
(**each 18.613-years)** at Lunar Major Standstill.

**HOW
THE CELTIC SABBATICAL SYSTEM WORKED PRACTICALLY IN AGRARIAN SOCIETY.**

- It was very important to take a Solstice time fix during the period closest to lunar major standstill, such that the calendar commenced accurately in line with a relatively rare benchmark celestial event involving both the Sun & Moon.

- The summer and winter solstices are, however, inconvenient times in any working agrarian society for commencing the year and the chosen day for the new-year was the beginning of a season rather than mid-season. This was, either, on the first day of summer and last day of spring or, as some scholars suggest, the first day of winter and last day of autumn.

- To
run an effective calendar the solar year was divided into 8 parts, each enduring,
literally, for 45.67-days (46th day). This period included the Winter Solstice,
the Vernal Equinox, Summer Solstice and Autumn Equinox (which provided time fixes
onto the Sun), as well as the midpoints between these solar events.

- Festivals
were held at the commencement of each season (which included the Vernal &
Autumn Equinoxes), as well as at the time of the two Solstices (mid-season).

- Tracking the sun was never going to be a problem as the full sun orb arose and set regularly each day. But the moon was a different story altogether:

**Romeo.
Lady, by yonder blessed moon I swear That tips with silver all these fruit-tree
tops,— Julliet. O! swear not by the moon,
the inconstant moon, That monthly changes in her circled orb, Lest that thy love
prove likewise variable.**

- A
day count method had to be devised to link the beginning of the season when the
calendar count commenced with the Solstice / full moon fix, then to 7-solar years
running concurrently with 7.2 lunar years. The dual periods of the sun and moon
then terminated together at the end of the Sabbatical cycle. The formula was based,
in part, upon an increment of 40.5-days or 972 hours. From the beginning of the
season when the calendar count was commenced, one counted 52.5-days or 1260 hours.
This was made up of 40.5-days + the 12-days of observance = 52.5 days. Another
way of looking at it was: 40.5-days + 5.25-days (6th day) = 45.75-days = 1/8th
of a year. This got the count from the first day of the season to the Solstice
/ full moon fix. To accomplish this one only had to count through a
**CIALLOS**calculating section of the bronze plaque one and a half times (45-days) to arrive at the first day of**MID SAM**(45.75 or 46th day), which was the day of the mid- summer solstice. Another 5.25 -days (6 days) passed, thus completing the 40.5-days + 12-days of observance ritual. Now it would be 2551.5-days (7.2 lunar years) until the end of the Sabbatical cycle. This is 40.5-days X 64 (2592-days) + the 12-days of observance, from the beginning of summer.

- Using
the summer solstice (midsummer) as the benchmark for both Sun and full Moon, the
Druidic Priests held a solemn ceremony on the 6th day after the full moon (5.25-days
literally).

- From
this date on the 6th day after the full moon they knew that the passage of 7.2
lunar years of 354.375-days duration (2551.5-days) would bring them to 2556.75-days
beyond the summer solstice / lunar major standstill conjunction, amounting to
exactly 7 solar years of 365.25-days each.

- The
ancient people devised counting systems that were based upon much repeated numbers.
The numbers themselves were easy to remember or break down in mathematical progressions.
One of the most dynamic numbers of antiquity was
**25920,**which generally described the number of years to complete the cycle of the Precession of the Equinoxes.

- By getting
a time fix for the commencement of the calendar firmly locked to the solstice/
lunar major standstill conjunction, then backing up from that "benchmark
point" a total of 45.75-days (46th day…1/8th of a year), the ancient
people were poised to run a solar calendar programme that endured for
**2592-days**or 86.4-months...plus the 12-days of observance.

- The count could run in blocks of 40.5-days or 81 whole days (9 X 9), if desired and 32 such blocks would amount to 2592-days. Alternatively, 84 such blocks (6804-days), running from the solstice/ lunar major standstill period conjunction, would tell one when the next lunar major standstill occurred. This is but one of several options available on how to use a multi-layered system, which was capable of dealing with several types of cycles simultaneously. This option will be discussed as we proceed.

**SO
WHAT EXACTLY DO YOU WANT CALCULATE?**

The Druidic system, as encoded into the Calendar of Coligny, offered a range of calculation options. These included:

- The
solar cycle, spanning 7 solar years X 7 until the commencement of the 50th or
Jubilee year. This was the solar aspect of the very ancient Sabbatical cycle.

- A solar
cycle within the 6804-day lunar nutation cycle.

- The
lunar cycle, spanning 7.2 lunar years X 7, with ceremonial additions of 5.25-days
each 7.2 lunar years to make the lunar cycle meld with the solar Sabbatical cycle.
This was the lunar aspect of the Sabbatical cycle.
- The
lunar cycle within the 6804-day Lunar Nutation Cycle, where the Moon moved from
Major Standstill to Minor Standstill and back to Major Standstill once more. This
oscillation of the Moon during a period of 18.613-years was somewhat comparable
to the Sun's annual movement from winter Solstice to Equinox to summer Solstice.

- Solar
years in terms of months of 28-days in an easy to use system where there were
364-days per solar year, composed of 13 months each. The 1.25-days of accruing
error per year would be rectified at the end of the 7th year after a festival
of 9-days duration. This was the basic, raw count, Sabbatical cycle system that
worked to a "7" series of numbers. All weeks were 7-days long. The 7th
month was the Sabbatical month. The 7th year was the Sabbatical year and the passage
of 7 batches of Sabbatical years heralded arrival at a date wherein all finite
calendar corrections were finalised before entry into the 50th or Jubilee year.
This was the calendar of "ordinary folk" engaged in peasant planting
and harvesting. Despite it's simplicity, it was overseen by Druidic scientists,
staying more accurately abreast of the position arrived at within the monitored
cycles.

- An extended 2592-day agrarian community cycle, starting on the first day of summer, 45.75 (46-days) before the solstice. This calendar count of days was regulated by the Sabbatical cycle and terminated at the end of a Sabbatical year.

- A 19 solar year metonic cycle that conjuncted with 235 lunar months.

**WHY
WAS THE CALENDAR OF COLIGNY SET OUT AS 128 BIWEEKLY SQUARES OR 64 MONTH SQUARES?
**

Each square
represented a biweekly period of either 14 or 15 days, with some months accumulating
into 29 days and alternate months into 30 days. Although this averaged 29.5 days
per month, the priest astronomers knew it meant **29.53125-days in every case.**
It didn't matter that months were half a day over or under, as the returning full
moon ironed out any discrepancies in the reading. So how do we know that the ancient
lunar month was actually read as 29.53125-days? By assigning values of either
29.53125-days (lunar) or 30-days (solar), the progress of both the sun and moon
could be monitored and plotted simultaneously.

- The
Great Pyramid is 756 feet per side length. If this number is divided by 16 then
the result is 47.25 feet.

- If
the 1/16th segment
**(47.25 feet)**of the Great Pyramid is multiplied by 15, then the result is 708.75 feet.

- The
Khafre Pyramid is 15/16ths the base length of the Great Pyramid or 708.75 feet
per side. Half of this value (354.375 feet) codes the number of days in a lunar
year.

- If
the ½ value of the Khafre Pyramid length (354.375 feet) is divided by 12,
then the result is 29.53125 feet and, in days, this is the duration of the lunar
month to an accuracy of 57 seconds. Alternatively, 29.53125-days = 708.75 hours.

- The length,
height and diagonal aspects of the Khafre Pyramid are determined by 3.4.5 triangulation
and the height (opposite) was intended to be
**472.5 feet.** - If
one uses the value of 3024 feet (4 sides of the Great Pyramid @ 756 feet per side...1/2
a minute of arc for the equatorial circumference of the Earth under the
**Reed**measurement system) and divides this by**128**(the number of squares on the Calendar of Coligny) then the result is 23.625. This number is a part of a lunar mathematical progression, extending through: 23.625, 47.25 (note: the height of the Khafre Pyramid is 472.5 feet), 70.875 (note: the length of the Khafre Pyramid is 708.75 feet), 94.5, 118.125 (note: the number of days in 4 lunar months is 118.125), etc.

These
clues indicate that the Coligny Calendar is mathematically related to things happening
on the Great Pyramid, as well as Khafre Pyramid…and that they are all encoding
identical lunar methodologies. It also provides us with the essential formulas
to make correct calculations over the Calendar of Coligny's central chessboard
matrix, where full lunar months are set out in 64 squares, with special, multi-optional
**CIALLOS **sections offering a range of differing calculation opportunities.

**Figure
7: The columns are housed within a rectangle that is 4.536 feet long and there
are 16 columns. This means that each column is .2835 feet wide or 3.402 inches.
The Khafre Pyramid was 2835 feet in base perimeter value or 34020 inches.**

- The long
top area immediately above the columns is .189 feet in depth or 2.268 inches.
The depth is therefore in a ratio of 1: 24 to the length. The Great Pyramid was
2268 feet for 3 sides. There were 4 segments of 189-feet in the base length of
the Great Pyramid or 16 for the full perimeter. There were 15 segments of 189
feet in the perimeter of the Khafre Pyramid (2835 feet).

- The 18.613-year lunar nutation cycle works out to be 6798.36-days, but unfortunately this number cannot be broken down in a workable mathematical progression, whereas the close proximity number 6804 can. For this reason the ancient astronomers pressed 6804 into service to describe the lunar nutation cycle (major standstill to major standstill), as it gave a lunar month reading to an excess error of only 57 seconds. Remember that the inch count for the Khafre Pyramid perimeter is 34020, which is ½ of 68040.

In the most fluid and straightforward usage of the Calendar of Coligny plaque (64-squares) it works perfectly within the confines of the 6804-day Lunar Nutation Cycle and a count of all squares will give a figure of 1890-days or one quarter of the duration of the Lunar Nutation Cycle.

**THE
SABBATICAL SOLAR CYCLE, USING AN INCREMENT OF 30-DAYS.**

It
seems apparent that the two ***CIALLOS **sections of the Calendar of Coligny
were placed there to serve multiples of calculation functions and each could be
pressed into service to represent two solar month of either 28 or 30-days or,
even two lunar months of 29.53125-days if desired for demonstration purposes.
By this means the bronze plaque, symbolically, offered blocks of 64 months per
circuit in which to complete solar or lunar calculations manually. Such a provision
would have been very valuable in teaching initiates the art of tracking the sun
and moon periods within a lunisolar calendar system.

The sum of 63 solar months of 30-days duration = 1890-days or 270 weeks of 7-days each. This sum also represents 67.5 months of 28-days each (peasant or agrarian community months). To complete a full Sabbatical solar cycle (using months of thirty days) one would use 63 squares only and move through the plaque 1.35 times + 5.25 additional days.

To complete a 7.2 lunar year cycle (using months of 29.53125-days) one would use 64-squares and move through the plaque 1.35 times.

***Footnote:
**In a more literal
or practical sense, **one could not disrupt the natural
flow of months by adding in intercalary months. **These two **CIALLOS**
sections of the calendar, obviously, offered separate calculating functions distinct
from the unravelling, titled months. The best clue related to the primary function
of the **CIALLOS** sections is found in the sub-title: **SONNOCINGOS **(the
march of the sun).

Whereas
the main body of the calendar plaque seems to relate numerically to the lunar
month (29.53125-days), the two **CIALLOS** sections offer counts of 30-days
each, more in keeping with one of two methods of doing the solar month count.
The first **CIALLOS** section of the calendar is badly smashed and our scholars
have tried to recompose the scant, remnant pieces of text by comparison with the
2nd **CIALLOS** section, which is more complete. This is how the two sections
are now thought to have been in their heading titles:

**DACAMONOS
BUIS** [First] period of adjustment.

**SONNOCINGOS** [The march of the
sun] [by addition of one]...Sonno [sun]...Cingos [march].

**MID XIII**
[thirteenth month complete] [carrying].

**MATUS CCC
LXXXV LATES** [the duration of 385 days].

The
title at the top of the second **CIALLOS **section is composed of five lines
of text, as opposed to the first **CIALLOS,** which has only four. This one
(with some reconstruction) says:

**CIALLOS
B**[U]**IS** [Second] period of adjustment.

**SONNOCINGOS** [The march
of the sun].

**AMMAN.M.M XIII** [Duration of 13 months complete].

**LAT CCC LXXXV** [Day 385]

[AM]**BANTARAN
M** [month between the two].

**The
second CIALLOS calculation or adjustment section
occurring on the Coligny plaque after the 30th month. The term SONNO
CINGOS means: passage or journey of the Sun,
which would infer that the CIALLOS sections were
set apart, primarily, to track the solar year. The 3rd line,
AMMAN.M.M XIII is said to mean: 13-months
completed. If (or whenever) this was read to mean solar months, then the
inference under the Sabbatical count system was 13 months
of 28 days = 364-days. If (or whenever) this was read to mean lunar months,
then it equated to: 13 X 29.53125-days = 384-days (rounded
very slightly to a full day). Under such circumstances of dual coding the solar
and lunar aspects simultaneously for separate value readings, then the line that
followed would simply mean 365-days for the solar
count or 385-days for the day after the passage of
13-lunar months ... either CCC DOUBLE XXX + V = 365...
or ... CCC LXXXV = 385.**

It
is easy to see why the ancient astronomers would wish to include this mnemonic
reference to **384-days** (under the guise of
the day before **385-days**), as it relates, in
a dynamic coded sense, to the duration of the lunar nutation cycle of 6804-days.
Therefore, 6804 ÷ 384 = **17.71875.** This
number doubled = **35.4375**. As we know there
are **354.375-days** in a lunar year or twelve
months of **29.53125-days. **There
are **19.2 **lunar years in the 6804-day lunar
nutation cycle. Alternatively, the lunar aspect of the Sabbatical calendar (7.2
lunar years or 2551.5-days) X 2 & 2/3rds = 6804. By using simple mathematical
tricks or memory triggers at intervals within items like the Calendar of Coligny,
the ancient scientists could always remember their parcel of astronomical and
navigational numbers.

Tracking
the solar cycle was considerably simpler than staying abreast of the more complex
waxing and waning moon, oscillating to extreme positions on the horizon during
an 18.613-year cycle. The **CIALLOS **sections seem to have been set aside
primarily for solar counts or to serve a range of secondary calculation functions.

**THE SABBATICAL
SOLAR CYCLE, USING AN INCREMENT OF 30.4375-DAYS.**

The solar month, when based upon one twelfth of the true solar year of 365.25-days = 30.4375-days. A count on the bronze plaque of 84 such (assigned duration) months would complete a solar Sabbatical cycle of 2556.75-days (365.25-days X 7). The sum of 62 such months would equate to 1887.125-days or 2.875-days (69 hours) less than 1890-days (189-days is 1/36th of the Lunar Nutation Cycle of 6804-days).

**THE
SABBATICAL SOLAR CYCLE, USING AN INCREMENT OF 30-DAYS.**

If one considered that each named month had a value of 30-days, then a count of 63 such months would equate to 1890-days. Alternatively, 85.225 such months (85 months and 6.75 days) would equate to seven solar years of 365.25-days each and 85.05 such months (85 months and 1.5-days) would equate to 7.2-lunar years.

**THE
LUNAR SABBATICAL CYCLE, USING AN INCREMENT OF 29.53125-DAYS.**

One
should not be scared of numbers with long tails of decimals, such as 29.53125,
as these are simple fractions that were easily within the capacity of the ancient
mathematicians to express and work with. This number is, simply, 29 & 17/32nds.
By assigning each of the titled month blocks** (CIALLOS sections not included)**
on the bronze plaque a value of 29.53125-days (one lunar month to an accuracy
of about 57-seconds), then 64-squares would complete 1890-days. Alternatively
the passage of 86.4 such months would equate to the 2551.5-day count for 7.2 lunar
years. An additional 5.25-days would equal 2556.75-days, the duration of 7-solar
years.

**THE
SEVEN DAY WEEK, TWENTY-EIGHT DAY MONTH, AGRARIAN COMMUNITY COUNT.**

For simplicity, the peasant communities worked to a 13-month year, with each month enduring for 28-days. If each block of the bronze plaque were considered to mark off 28-days, then 67.5 such months would equate to 1890-days and a count of 91.3125 such months (91 months and 8.75-days) would complete seven solar years. Alternatively, 91.125 such months (91 months and 3.5-days) would equate to 7.2-lunar years.

Except
for teaching initiates how the solar aspect would work within monthly categories
across the 60 titled months appearing on the plaque, it seems apparent that the
solar cycle was mostly monitored within the two **CIALLOS** sections. These
were composed of 30-days each, but offered the added option of using only 28 of
the numbered counting holes if following the 28-day month X 13-months per annum,
Sabbatical Calendar system.

Because
the overall Calendar plaque is made up, equally, of **MAT **months (30-days)
and** AMN **months (29-days) averaging 29.5 days. The option was certainly
available to, simply, consider all titled months to be only solar months of 30-days
each, if that was found to be desirable for a calculation option. In another instance
one could consider that all titled months were only lunar @ 29.53125-days each,
or then immediately switch to representing each titled month as only 28-days duration
each under the Sabbatical system of solar month counting. The plaque was set out
in a very versatile manner and could act as a calculating matrix for any one of
several things simultaneously, including acting as a static calculator of solar
year and lunar year positions arrived at within the lunar nutation cycle.

**THE
18.613-YEAR (6804- SOLAR DAY) LUNAR NUTATION CYCLE…MAJOR STANDSTILL TO MAJOR
STANDSTILL.**

During a period of 18.613-years the moon moves from major standstill (most northerly and southerly rising and setting positions) to minor standstill (least northerly and southerly rising and setting positions) then back again to major standstill. Visually following this wide span to short span oscillation of the moon, up and down the horizon, was of tremendous importance to ancient astronomers, who were using the daily position of the moon (the way the moon was crossing the Earth's path and its exact position…declination) to make long-term weather predictions.

The
moon, because of its intense gravitational tug on our atmosphere, is the largest
single contributor to changing weather patterns across the face of the globe and
can be used with excellent relative accuracy to foresee upcoming weather fluctuations.

This infers that astronomer/ priests of the old orders could foretell when
periods of drought, flooding, intense storms, early and late frosts, etc., were
most likely to occur. Practical preplanning, based upon regional experience, could
limit potentially drastic effects when the moon's position was portend to coming
danger.

Farmers could be forewarned to plant earlier or later…or to
leave the land lying fallow through a dangerous season. The loss of seed stocks
or crops could be minimized and the chances for successful outcomes in agrarian
communities optimised by knowledge of sound scientific principles of lunar cause
and effect.

On all standing stone circles that this researcher has studied, the categories of navigation and the cycles of the moon seem to be more greatly accentuated and important than the solar observations.

The
Calendar of Coligny, offers a total of 60 titled month in one traversal of the
plaque. In a symbolic sense it offers 64 months if one counts the space occupied
by the two **CIALLOS** sections. However, the sequence of months, unravelling
in chronological order, show that the plaque was built to serve the dictates of
the 6804-day lunar nutation cycle. The sum total of 64 months (one full traversal
of the plaque, plus four additional months of 29.53125-days) is 1890-days and
3.84 full panel counts of months (230.4 months...230 full months plus 12-days)
resolves to 6804-days. By following this cycle on a daily basis, the phase of
the moon and its exact changing position, in relation to the Earth's plane (declination)
could always be known or predicted exactly by mathematical calculation (even years
ahead of time).

Again,
the degree of accuracy between the use of 6804-days to describe the lunar nutation
cycle and that of the precise cycle at 6798.36-days amounts to very close to the
5.25-day increment… 6804 - 6798.36 = 5.64-days.

The standard increment
of 5.25-days, used to adjust either the sun or moon values throughout (and at
the end of) the lunisolar sabbatical cycle, can again be pressed into service.
The reed measurement increment (10.5 feet) appears to have been devised specifically
to address the needs of solar and lunar calendar calculations

It's interesting to note that the Reed measurement worked just as effectively for the ancient civilisations in their maritime navigation, based upon a 6&7 reading of the Earth's equatorial circumference (i.e. 12 X 12 X 12 X 12 X 1.2 Greek miles of 5250 feet each, which is either 24882.2 Greek miles or 24741.81818 British standard miles of 5280 feet each). This reading, which is the same system encoded into the perimeter dimensions of the Great Pyramid (756 per side...3024 feet for 4 sides...1/2 a minute of arc in the Earth's equatorial size) is fully divisible by the reed measurement of 10.5 feet.

**THE
19-YEAR METONIC CYCLE OF THE MOON.**

There is a wonderful conjunction between the sun & moon cycles at the resolving point of 19 solar years or 235 lunar months, which is referred to as the metonic cycle of the moon. This could have been used as a fine-tuning and adjustment cycle to maintain accuracy within the Coligny Calendar.

**THE
LAYOUT OF LUNAR MONTHS…AND MARKERS INDICATING SIGNIFICANT MILESTONES.**

The
Calendar of Coligny is in a dismal condition with well over 50% missing. Despite
this inconvenience, sufficient remains for researchers to identify the assigned
names for each lunar month and whether or not they were designated as 29-day months
(**ANM**) or 30-day months (**MAT**). The day-count assigned to each month
is clearly seen by the numbered "holes" running vertically down the
side of each column box. All numbers are in Roman numerals, ranging from **I,
II, III, IIII, V, VI, VII, VIII, VIIII, X, XI, XII, XIII, XIIII, XV.**

The
boxes are read from the top left corner downward and from left to right across
the bronze plaque.

The 12 names or titles for lunar months on the calendar are:

**SAMON
**(MAT),** DVMAN **(ANM),** RIVROS **(MAT),** ANAGAN **(ANM),** OGRONN
**(MAT),** CVTIOS **(MAT),** GIAMONI **(AMN),** SIMIVIS **(MAT),**
EQVOS **(AMN),** ELEMIV **(AMN)** EDRINI **(MAT),** CANTLOS **(AMN)
= 354 days (the lunar year is 354.375-days).

Each of the above titles is preceded
by the letter **M. **

The
first **SAMON **month has a special designation, **MID SAM.**

Each
of these months is split into two parts with the word **ATENOVX** inserted
between the biweekly periods. The word **ATENOVX **would have appeared on the
calendar 62 times.

The
first box of the calendar contained the title, **CIALLOS**, which is described
in most articles about the perceived workings of the calendar as an intercalary
month of 30-days (**MAT**). These titles appear at the beginning of the calendar
and also at the end of the 30th month. A **CIALLOS** occupies the same space
as would normally be allotted to two months. Each half of a **CIALLOS** numbers
to** XV** or 15-days total, including its **ATENOVX** appendage, also numbering
15-days. It appears likely that these regions were set aside for a variety of
special calculation functions, but were mainly for monitoring the solar years.

The
term **TRINoX SAMO sindiv **seems to refer to the 3-nights per month when the
moon does not appear… the 3 nights of darkness on the 14th, 15th, & 16th
days after the full moon.

Other
terms in various boxes include, **PRIN LOVDIN, AMB, IVOS, AMB IVOS, INIS R, DVMAN
exo IVOS.**

Special symbols like **ƒJJ** or **JƒJ **or **JJƒ**
sit adjacent to particular lunar markers and possibly refer to lunar declination.

**SOME
MISCONCEPTIONS ABOUT INTERCALARY MONTHS.**

The
Calendar of Coligny is in a very fragmented state, with many column titles completely
missing. Despite this imposition, researchers have been able to set out the titles
in order and assign each of the months their correct 29 (**AMN**) or 30 (**MAT**)
classifications.

Some
prominent researchers have concluded that the 2 **CIALLOS** sections represent
2 intercalary months with a value of 30-days each. From this they conclude that
the ancient Druids were working a system of 62 lunar months duration, which equated
very closely to 5 solar years. This, they say, could also be broken down into
two segments within the calendar of 2.5-years duration each.

The
major problem with this theory is that the ancient people could not disrupt the
chronological unfolding of their year, as a named month was locked to a specific
season, following on the heels of another named month, equally locked to its season.
Even today we can't disrupt that flow and any officials who came along and told
us that they were going to insert a **CIALLOS** month between October and November
would quickly get the bum's rush. If such drastic intercalation were implemented,
the titled name describing mid summer would, eventually, make no sense at all.
It would, eventually, describe midwinter.

Intercalation
of time has to be limited to a few days of adjustment here and there at the end
of a long period (like seven full solar years). The system has to be so well designed
and closely accurate that any intercalation, to bring the calendar systems in
line with the true duration of the solar & lunar cycles, is only very minor.
Benchmark points, for adjusting any drift or slippage in accuracy are provided
by the solar equinoxes and solstices. By observing them regularly, precision in
the calendar count is assured.

**Figure
8: A reconstruction of the Coligny Calendar, showing the placement of all the
months and including the "CIALLOS" regions. The
yellow orb marker is this researchers way
of indicating the ceremony of cutting mistletoe on the 6th day after the full
moon. **

**A
very visible and deliberately made dot indentation mark, sitting to the right
of the 6th day of MID SAM, might indicate the mistletoe ceremony, which was designed
to accumulate 5.25 days (6-days) such that sun & moon periods would resolve
together to a 7 solar year count. This prominent dot indentation marker would
also indicate the end day of (what became) the Christian 12-days of Christmas
period (stolen off the pre-Christian Pagans). From this day (six days after the
summer solstice) 7.2 lunar years would terminate on the same day as 7-solar years
running from the summer solstice.**

**These
dot indentation markers sit to the side of VI in
MID SAM, as well as to the side of VIIII in the CIALLOS
square preceding. The dot indentation for 6-days before MID SAM is seen slightly
above and to the left of VIIII (9th day of the CIALLOS
/ ATENOVX or 6-days before MID SAM). There are many more of these dot markers
across the length and breadth of the plaque and situated adjacent to specific
numbers in the day count. They all appear to represent purpose placed positions
or milestones arrived at. (High resolution photo supplied by
Rudi Diesvelt). **

**From
this dot indentation evidence it appears very likely that the 12-day observance,
situated each side of the summer solstice and culminating in the mistletoe culling
ceremony, was positively marked on the Coligny plaque.**

**SUMMARY
OF OPTIONS. **

Each of the options listed allowed for highly accurate forecasts as to when significant dates would be achieved in terms of lunar, solar and calendar events. Everything was calculable in reasonably finite terms with no large lumps of residual error to juggle or discard in the final adjustments. Layers of interrelating cycles could be dealt with separately or in partnership, linked by mathematical ratios.

Certain durations, like the lunar nutation cycle, were allowed to carry a small amount of known error during their term such that convenient mathematical progressions, for lunisolar calculation purposes, were made available. At the end of cycles, however, the known, small degree of error was eliminated with utter ease, such that layers of cycles, tied to the lunar nutation cycle foundation, could recommence in perfected unity.

There was no need for the drastic intercalation of whole months to make the ancient calendar system function, as suggested by some researchers, only the occasional accumulations of 5.25-day offsets between Sun and Moon each 7 solar years. These convenient, purpose-made clumps of 5.25-days, were ultimately adjusted out during festivals. The greater determinant cycle was drawn back to its exact 6798.36-day duration, then relaunced, to accumulate a known error of only 57-seconds per lunar month, for the next Sabbatical period before adjustment.

The Sabbatical calendar method was fashioned to very convenient, near perfect numbers, which were used to describe lunisolar attributes in terms that functioning humankind could understand, in the day to day running of their affairs. Events in the heavens dictated the day and hour when the greater cycle ended and the new cycle commenced its flow, carrying no burden of calendar error in its wake.

**THE
DOT INDENTATION CODES (MEMORY TRIGGERS).**

**We'll
make a start on these and add more as time permits. There are many of these dot
markers across the length and breadth of the Calendar of Coligny artefact to analyse
for the extraction of number codes. As long as the dot indentations are clearly
identifiable, the codes that they carry in their positions are easily recognised.**

Indented into specific positions, adjacent to or straddling particular numbers, the artisan astronomers who built the Calendar of Coligny have placed small dot markers. These indicate that significant milestones have been reached in the count of days and that, either, the moment arrived at within the calendar cycle is of great importance, or else the "number" exhibited is one of the special ones, much used in the general calculation endeavours of their ancient society. Let's look at the surviving dot indentations and identify the coded purposes of these positions, one by one:

**1.
**The two dots relating to six days before the summer solstice and six days
after have already been discussed and these seem to relate directly to the 12-days
of observance, ending with the mistletoe ceremony.

**2.
MID SAM ATENOX @ X (day 10).** This position codes the numbers 25 or 25.2. In
the lunar nutation cycle of 6804-days, there are 27 periods of 252-days. The base
length of the Great Pyramid is 756 feet (252 X 3). The sum of 252 feet is 1/24th
of 1-minute of arc for the equatorial size of the Earth (12 X 12 X 12 X 12 X 1.2
Greek miles of 5250 feet). There are 2.5 X 252 feet in a Greek long Stadia of
630 feet, etc. In hours, the sum of 252-days = 6048 hours, which in feet represented
two perimeter circumnavigations of the Great Pyramid's base or 1-minute of equatorial
arc under the 6&7 family of numbers used in navigation. All of the surviving
Greek distance measurements (based upon the reed of 10.5 feet) were part of the
6&7 number family.

**3.
DVMAN @ about XIII (day 13). **This position seems to bear a marker and it would
make sense if it did. The dot indentation seems to be indicating 42.525. This
is a very important lunar progression and there would be 160 periods of 42.525-days
in 6804-days or 60 such periods in 7.2 lunar years.

**4.
DVMAN ATENOX @ XII (day 12). **The dot is quite faint and in shadow to the left
of the number, but if it is there it would make perfect sense. This position would
code 56.7 (18.9-days X 3), which is a dynamic lunar number. There would be 120
periods of 56.7-days in the lunar nutation cycle of 6804-days (360 periods of
18.9-days). Alternatively, there would be 45 periods of 56.7-days in the Sabbatical
calendar lunar period of 2551.5-days (7.2 lunar years). These values (120 &
45) would indicate that the lunar periods could be easily tracked on a 360-degree
compass, based upon 18.9-days per degree. The sum total of hours in 18.9-days
is 453.6. The vertical, design height of the Great Pyramid from its base to the
flat surface of its platform floor on top is 453.6 feet (it never had a capstone).
The sum of 453.6 ÷ 22***** = 20.61818182 (which in inches is the official
length of an Egyptian Royal cubit). This value X 1200 = 24711.81818 (which, in
British miles of 5280 feet, was the equatorial circumference of the world as encoded
into the base dimensions of the Great Pyramid...where one circumnavigation is
1/2 of a minute of arc). The sum of 24711.81818 British miles = 24883.2 Greek
miles of 5250 feet each (12 X 12 X 12 X 12 X 1.2 = 24883.2).

***Footnote:**
The flat floor atop the Great Pyramid measures 44' X 44' and 22' is half that
side length value. A clever mnemonic code, using the "hour" value of
18.9-days, allowed the Druid readers of the Calendar of Coligny to remember the
age-old formula leading to calculating the equatorial size of the Earth. Under
the old system, lunar values will automatically dovetail into, and are synonymous
with, the values used to describe the size of the Earth.

**5.
DVMAN ATENOX @ XIIII (day 14).** This position positively codes 58.32. The sum
of 58.32-inches was 5 Roman feet of 11.664 inches each. The measurement was once
used universally by the cousin nations as a distance increment or in various calculations
to do with the lunar cycle and navigation. There would be 116.66666 periods of
58.32-days in 6804-days or 43.75 such periods in 7.2 lunar years. The Roman foot
could be quoted variously as 11.664 or 11.66666, depending on the type of calculation
that was being done.

It
can be estimated with reasonable confidence that in the first section of **RIVROS**
three special numbers would have been recorded. These were:** 61.8, 63 &
64.** The ancient Druids would have needed to remember the reciprocal value
of PHI (.6180339) in order to fashion all of their volume tubs (bushel barrels,
etc.) for use in the market places. The formula for making the bases was 10-inches
÷ 1.6180339 (PHI) = 6.18034 inches. A correct bushel barrel was 3 X 6.18034
inches in diameter (18.54102) across its circular base (270 square inches of surface).
This, in conjunction with sides that rose to 8-inches above the tub floor, gave
a cubic capacity of 2160 cubic inches for a bushel of dry grain produce. The number
2160 is a multi-use code of antiquity...the sun spends 2160 years in each house
of the zodiac during the precession of the equinoxes, etc.

There are 108 periods of 63-days in the lunar nutation cycle. There are 40.5 periods of 63-days in 7.2 lunar years (2551.5-days). There are 1512-hours in 63-days and 1512 feet represented the distance for two sides of the Great Pyramid (756-feet per side). In the calendar counting system, 63 solar months of 30-days = 1890-days and 3.6 such periods completes the lunar nutation cycle. Alternatively, 64 periods of 29.53125-days (lunar month) = 1890-days. If the side length of the Great Pyramid (756 feet) is divided by 64 then the result is 11.8125 feet. There are 118.125-days in 4 lunar months. The Khafre Pyramid (Egypt's Pyramid of the Moon) is 708.75 feet long. One quarter of its side length is 118.125 feet.

**6.
RIVROS @ XIIII (day 14). **This position is probably coding 1/5th of a solar
year or 73.05-days. There would be 35 periods of 73.05-days in 7-solar years.
Alternatively, this position would have been used in mnemonic reference to 72.9-days.
There would be 35 periods of 72.9-days in 7.2 lunar years. The sum of 7.29-inches
was 1/8th of a Roman Pace of 58.32-inches.

**7.
RIVROS ATENOX @ I (day 1). **There appears to be two dot marks here in close
proximity and they probably mean 75 & 75.6-days respectively. The lunar nutation
cycle duration ÷ 75 = 90.72. The length of the Great Pyramid in inches
is 9072 (756 feet). Alternatively, there would be 90 periods of 75.6-days in 6804-days.
There would be 34.02 periods of 75-days in 7.2 lunar years. The Lunar nutation
cycle (6804-days) ÷ 2 = 3402-days. There would be 33.75 periods of 75.6-days
in 7.2 lunar years (the lunar duration within the Sabbatical calendar system).
The value 33.75 provides an important lunar and navigational progression.

**8.
ANAGAN...midway between V & VI (days 5 & 6). **This
position was, undoubtedly, dual coded to mean 93.33333-days and 94.5-days respectively.
Both values provide important progressions that relate directly to the lunar period
or to navigation. There would be 72 periods of 94.5-days in the lunar nutation
cycle. There would be 27 periods of 94.5-days in 7.2 lunar years. There would
be 72.9 periods of 93.33333-days in 6804-days. The Bush Barrow Lozenge artefact
of Southern England is 7.29 inches long (1/8th of a Roman Pace)***** and this
value is a part of a strong lunar and navigational progression, which includes
the values for the Roman foot (11.664-inches) and Pace (58.32 inches) measurements.
The Roman Stadia was 7290-inches (125 Paces).

***Footnote:**
The Bush Barrow Lozenge and Clandon Barrow Lozenge artefacts pre-date Roman Britain
by a couple of thousand years. This shows that the so-called "Roman"
measurement system was already being used universally by the Neolithic Age cousin
nations, long before there was any semblance of a Roman civilisation.

**9.
ANAGAN @ XII (day 12). **This position is, without doubt, coding 1-second of
equatorial arc (100.8 feet) for the Earth under the Great Pyramid's geodetic system.
Alternatively, there would be 67.5 periods of 100.8-days in the lunar nutation
cycle. There would be 25.3125 periods of 100.8-days in 7.2 lunar years. The value
25.3125 is a part of a very important lunar and navigational mathematical progression.
The Great Pyramid's base perimeter measurement (3024 feet) was 100.8 feet X 30.
Alternatively, there were other geodetic systems, based upon various number families.
This position would also be used for mnemonic reference to 1-second of arc under
the other systems. One of these was the "true" equatorial size of the
Earth, which was 12 X 12 X 12 X 12 X 1.2 miles of 5280 feet. Under this reading,
one second of arc is **101.376** feet, which is the width of the stybolite
platform upon which the Parthenon of Athens sits.

**10.
ANAGAN ATENOX @ I (day 1). **There
should once have been a marker here to code 105, in homage to the reed measurement.
The position is now so corroded and damaged that it is not possible to see if
an indentation marker was placed at this point.

**11.
ANAGAN ATENOX @ VI (day 6).**
This codes the number 110, or a primary component in the "11" number
family, which was at the basis of the ancient league (16500 feet...3.125-miles,
the mile...5280 feet, the furlong...660 feet, the chain...66 feet, the rod or
perch... 16.5 feet, the fathom...5.5 feet (original) and the link... 7.92 inches.

**12.
OGRON ...faint mark midway between XIII & XIIII (days 13 & 14). **This
is dual coding both 131.25 & 132 simultaneously. The value 131.25 is an offshoot
of the very important "Reed" measurement code, which relates directly
to the lunar periods or the equatorial size of the Earth. If 6804-days is divided
by 131.25, then the total derived is 51.84. The slope angle of the Great Pyramid
is 51.84-degrees. The azimuth angle upon which the huge Octagon earthworks complex
of Newark, Ohio was built is 51.84-degrees. The sum of 51.84-years = 1/500th of
the 25920-year duration of the Precession of the Equinoxes. The linear distance
of one ancient British league (16500 feet) converts to 51840 feet using an ancient
navigational rendition of PI @ 3.141818182. If the sum of 2551.5-days (7.2 lunar
years is divided by 131.25, then the result is 19.44. This was a very important
navigational value and the distance of 19.44-miles (Greek or British...depending
on which number family navigation was being completed under) was 1/1280th of the
equatorial size of the Earth. The value of 131.25 feet = 1/40th of a Greek mile
of 5250 feet.

The value 132 relates directly to the mile of 5280 feet and 132 feet = 1/40th of a mile. The side distance across Stonehenge of the station stones' rectangle is 264 feet (132 X 2) for the long side of the rectangle.

**13.
CVTIOS ATENOX...an important double marker sits alongside IIII (day 4).** This
codes 166.66666, which value was much used in antiquity. In any 3, 4, 5 triangle
the "Adjacent" will always be 1.666666 less than the "Hypotenuse"
and the "Opposite" will be 1.25 less than the "Hypotenuse".

**14.
CVTIOS ATENOX @ XI (day 11)... **This marked position is seen to be in the higher
levels of of the XI segment, inferring a number greater than 172.6, but less than
173. The position codes one of the most useful numbers of antiquity, 172.8. This
was much used in navigation. The Great Pyramid's base perimeter length was 3024
feet (1/2 a minute of arc). 1728 Hebrew or Celtic Royal cubits of 21-inches each
= 3024 feet. The lunar Sabbatical calendar period of 2551.5-days ÷ 86.4
(1/2 of 172.8) = 29.53125-days (a lunar month). The 6804-day period ÷ 172.8
= 39.375-days (945-hours) and a root value of an important lunar progression.
There are 1728 cubic inches in a cubic foot. The circumference of the **Nebra
Sky Disk** artefact of Germany, based upon its diameter (1 Greek foot),
can be read as 39.375-inches (39 & 3/8ths) in one much used ancient rendition
of the PI ratio.

**15.
GIAMONI ATENOX...between IIII & V (days 4 & 5). **This midway indentation
code is for mnemonic reference to 196.875-days. There are 6.66666 lunar months
in 196.875-days. There are 12.96 periods of 196.875-days in 2551.5-days (7.2-lunar
years). Note: the value 12.96 is half of 2592. The Precession of the equinoxes
was anciently calculated to endure for 25920-years (360 X 72). The duration of
6804 ÷ 196.875 = 34.56. The outer rim of the Sarsen Circle at Stonehenge
(11.52 feet per lintel X 30 lintels) = 345.6 feet. The Greek Didrachma commercial
weight was 196.875-grains. The Roman Uncia was two Greek Didrachma. The Romans
also used the Egyptian Beqa (Roman Semuncia), for their gold standard, which was
196.875-grains. The Greek Tridracma was also 196.875-grains.

**16.
SIMIVIS @ XI (day 11). **This is a very significant code that relates to the
equatorial circumference of the Earth. The value coded into this position of the
Calendar of Coligny was 217.728. Under the Great Pyramid's geodetic system, the
Earth was said to be 12 X 12 X 12 X 12 X 1.2 Greek miles of 5250 feet each in
circumference or 130636800 feet. The value of 217.728 feet is a 600,000th part
of that length. The length of 217.728 feet would equate to 224 Roman feet of 11.664
inches each, for a "Roman" equatorial reading of 134400000 Roman feet.
This value would also equate to 124416000 Greek feet of 12.6-inches each. A tradition
that was handed down until mediaeval times stated that 75 Roman miles (4860 feet
each) was 1-degree of equatorial arc under their navigational system. The value
of 217.728 feet of 12-inches would equate to 207.36 Greek feet. One of 3 main
Egyptian Royal cubits is considered to have been 20.736-inches or 1.728 feet.

Under (what much later became known as) the British league system, based upon the number 11, the Great Pyramid's base perimeter was considered to be 3025 feet (instead of 3024) for 1/2 of a minute of arc. This gave an equatorial circumference value of 24750 British miles of 5280 feet (11-series miles). Under such a reading, one 600,000 part would be 217.8 feet.

**17.
SIMIVIS ATENOX between VI & VII (days 6 & 7). **The number coded into
this position is 229.166666 (2750 ÷ 12). Under the Great Pyramid's league
navigational system (3025 feet for 1/2 a minute of arc) the Earth was considered
to be 24,750-miles in circumference. Under this system, 1-degree of arc was 68.75-miles,
which is 22.9166666 miles X 3. Alternatively, under the Great Pyramid's Reed navigational
system (3024 feet for 1/2 a minute of arc) the Earth was considered to have a
circumference of 24741.81818- miles of 5280 feet and 1-degree of arc was 68.72727272-miles
(362880 feet...note the perimeter value of the Great Pyramid @ 3024 feet is 36288
inches) The 68.72727272 value is also 74.666666 Roman miles. A third of 68.72727272-miles
is 22.90909090-miles (115200 Greek feet or 23.04 Greek miles). Under the "true"
equatorial reading (24883.2-miles of 5280 feet), one degree of arc was 69.12-miles.
A third of this value was 23.04-miles. The reason behind having different geodetic
systems was for ease of navigation, using a particular number family in preference
to another. The Greeks and others seemed to prefer the 6&7 (Reed based) system,
whereas the "11" (league & mile) system survived in Britain.

**18.
SIMIVIS ATENOX @ XV (day 15). **This indentation marker sits at the end of 8
lunar months for a reading of 236.25-days, which is 5670 hours. There are 10.8
periods of 236.25-days in 2551.5-days and 28.8-periods of 236.25-days in 6804-days.
The Khafre Pyramid of Egypt is 15/16ths the base length of the Great Pyramid and
has a design perimeter of 2835-feet. The sum of 2835 ÷ 12 = 236.25, which
is also 22.5 Reeds There would be 12.8 increments of 236.25 feet in the perimeter
of the Great Pyramid.

**19.
EQVOS ATENOX...midway between XI & XII (days 11 & 12). **This
position is in homage to the very important lunar and navigational number 262.5.
The sum of 262.5 feet = 25 reeds. There would be 9.72 periods of 262.5-days in
2551.5-days and 25.92 such periods in 6804-days. The Heel stone at Stonehenge
sits 259.2 feet from site centre. There are 25920-years in the precession of the
equinoxes, etc. The sum of 262.5-days = 6300 hours. The giant Atur measurement
of Egypt was, undoubtedly, 5-Greek miles or 26250 British feet.

**20.
EDRINI ATENOX...midway between XIII & XIIII (days 13 & 14).**
This codes the very important navigational and lunar number 324. There are 21-periods
of 324-days in 6804-days. There are 7.875 periods of 324-days in 2551.5-days.

**21.
CANTOS...between XI & XII (days 11 & 12). **The
number coded here is 336, which is a very important navigational value. The length
of 33.6 feet is 1/3rd of 1-second of arc under the Great Pyramid's geodetic system
(100.8 feet per second). There would be 9 increments of 336 feet in the 3024 feet
perimeter of the Great Pyramid.

**22.
CANTLOS ATENOX @ XI (day 11). **This
position is coding 350-days since MID SAM. There are 7.29 periods of 350-days
in 2551.5-days or 19.44 such periods in 6804-days. The increment of 7.29-inches
is 1/8th of a Roman Pace and the length of the Bush Barrow Lozenge artefact. There
would be 3 X 19.44-inches in a Roman Pace of 58.22-inches. There would be 12.8
increments of 1944-miles in the 24883.2-mile equatorial circumference of the Earth.

**23.
SAMON @ VIIII (day 9). **This
is coding 364-days or the end of a solar year under the Agrarian counting system
of 13-months of 28-days duration each = 364-days.

**24.
SAMON...midway between X & XI (days 10 & 11). **This
appears to be a marker and, if so, would indicate 365.25-days or the true duration
of a solar year.

**25.
DVMAN...midway between VIIII & X (days 9 & 10). **This
is coding a very important lunar progression value of 393.75. There would be 6.48
periods of 393.75-days in 2551.5-days or 17.28 such periods in 6804-days. A distance
of 393.75 feet would equate to 4725-inches. Under the Khafre Pyramid's 3, 4, 5
triangle method of construction, half the base length was 354.375-feet (adjacent),
the vertical height was 472.5 feet (opposite) and the face slope was 590.625 feet
(hypotenuse). Under the Hebrew Jerusalem weight (light) standard, a Talent was
472500-grains. A Roman Libra was 4725 grains. Alternatively, a Greek Commercial
Talent was 590625-grains. In more direct reference to the 393.75 value found on
the Calendar of Coligny, a Roman Uncia was 393.75-grains. The sum of 393.75 British
feet would be 375 Greek feet or 37.5 Hebrew Reeds. This would also be 229.1666666
Egyptian Royal Cubits of 20.61818182 inches (refer back to **17. SIMIVIS ATENOX**
in this list).

**26.
DVMAN ATENOX @ I (day 1). **By
this point 13 full months have been completed, plus the first half of DVMAN =
29.53125 X 13 + 15 + 1 = 400. This is therefore indicating the passage of 400
days in the calendar count. There would be 400 X 17.01-days in 6804-days. There
would be 150 X 17.01-days in 2551.5-days. The sum of 17.01 British feet would
equate to 17.5 Roman feet of 11.664-inches. There would be 16.2 Greek feet of
12.6-inches each in 17.01 British feet.

We
have now completed 14-months of the 60 repeating months across one sweep of the
calendar plaque. There, visually, seem to be other indentation markers strewn
amidst the 14-months dealt with in this analysis, but they are obscure and don't
rate further commentary until archaeologists at **La Musée de la Civilisation
Gallo-Romaine** positively verify their existence. This analysis is based upon
viewing a high resolution photo, but, even at that, some further, possible indentation
markers in the area already analysed are not 100% apparent. There are, however
many more that are positively there on the plaque, yet to consider, survey and
extract the codes from, beyond these first 14-months.

**To
download a high resolution photo of the Calendar of Coligny artefact for research
purposes,** **CLICK
HERE (3.11 MB).**

© To be continued:

Martin Doutré.